1. Origin of Life
People love to find the origin or beginning of something. For biologists it is life that becomes the origin of the object, so the statement “do life” and “from where their home life” is a statement that is always there over the centuries.
Records of fossil discoveries and can not give clues about the origin of life, because the oldest fossils ever found are complex organisms. So biologists were forced to choose another variety of indirect clues, then based on assumptions developed ideas about the origin of life.
Ancient assumption put forward by Aristotle in biology with his theory or abiogenists Generations Spontaneous explaining that living things can arise or the objects just happen to die or spontaneously.
Emerged a new theory on the modern notion, the theory known as: Omnevivum Omne ex ovo and ex vivo ovum, meaning that living things come from eggs and all eggs come from living things.
Chemist Harold Urey Urey theory. He believes that someday the earth’s atmosphere is rich molecules CH4 (methane), NH3 (ammonia), H2 in the form of gas due to the influence of electric current from the lightning-radiation cosmic radiation.
The experts also much to learn about the layers of earth and stones to find out how and when the first emergence of life on earth first. Approximately 500 million years ago (the period kombium) many fossils found in rock deposits, but deposits are older than the period kombium contain very few signs of life.
2. History of Living Creatures
According to one theory, now a diverse organisms that stuff is the result of the evolution of life. The problem then is how the basic mechanisms that are now single-celled organisms evolved into many-celled organisms. One of these allegations is thus; Biosphere: A world of life on our planet into a sub-system components. So as a sub system of the organism is shaped by matter and energy available in the biosphere as well. Because the biosphere applicable law of thermodynamics I and II, then the organism would be subjected to that law.
Law of Thermodynamics I:
In the biosphere there is no energy loss, the amount of energy remains that changes only its shape.
Second Law of Thermodynamics:
When a system is left standing alone, then the system tends to undergo decomposition in the direction of the most irregular.
3. Differences Living and the Dead Things
a. Shape and size Living things have a certain shape and size, whereas inanimate objects do not.
b. Chemical composition Living things have a certain chemical composition. Inanimate objects of their chemical composition is not certain.
c. Organization In living things are formed from the cells. On inanimate objects such as rocks, such arrangement is the result of basic elements.
d. Metabolism Occur in living organisms and the use of food intake, respiration or breathing. Secretion and excretion. Inanimate objects do not experience these things.
e. Irritability Living creatures can react to changes in the surrounding, the magnitude of the action of an unbalanced reaction. In reaction to inanimate objects balanced with action.
f. Reproduction In living organisms have the ability to make the creature a lot, while not an inanimate object.
g. Plants and has a life cycle Every living creature has undergone a process of growth and life cycle. It died enlarged because of outside influences.
• Characteristics of living things
– Able to move
– Having a metabolic function
– Having the function of maintaining its type / life
– Able to hold the answer to a stimulus.
• The characteristics of inanimate objects
– Unable to move and can not grow
– Not have a metabolic function
– Does not have the function of defending himself
– No answer / did not say anything to stimuli.
4. Trend and Variability Living
a. Types of cell division
1) What type of mitosis
2) Type amitosis
1) The history of life on earth based on fossil discoveries
– Age Azoikum
– Age Archozaikum
– Proterozoic Era
– Paleozoic Era
– Age Mezozoikum
– Age Kenozonikum
2) The theory of evolution
a) The theory of Lamarck According to the evolution due to adaptation. New properties that can be of influence on the environment and then passed on to offspring.
b) Darwin’s Theory Darwin put forward two main theories, namely:
i. The species living today come from species that lived in the past
ii. Evolution occurred through natural selection
c) Darwin’s theory-Weisman
Weisman complete Darwin’s theory with the following statement: Evolution is a genetic problem, which involves the issue of how genes are passed on through sex cells. Body cells are not influenced by the environment. So evolution is the phenomenon of natural selection against genotikan factor.
d) The theory of De Vries
The theory is that changes in the evolution that is caused by mutation of the gene.
5th. Living Diversity
a. Classification System
The expert knowledge to classify living organisms by giving the name of two words in each species (animals or plants). The first word is the genus name must be written in which the first letter uppercase and the second is a species guide.
Example: Homo sapiens Genus Species
b. World’s plant and animal world All living organisms are divided into two major parts, namely:
1) World crop
2) Animal World
6. Review of Aspects of Islam
If we look to the future, we will see that biology will make progress politically, the more human attributes that depend on biological explanations. Muslim intellectual responses to the contemporary biological world view, is therefore the most urgent needs in the future. No longer enough for us to limit ourselves to the judicial opinions regarding certain issues. This matter should be considered in their ideological context. Muslim individuals to exempt themselves from the prison biologically defined only through Western technology. Thus, if it has come to human biology, ethics and the moral order of Islam, as expressed in the Koran and the Sunnah of the Prophet SAW, must be able to replace the technology that limits it.
The origins of life
Until recently there was a scientist who managed to solve the problem of how the origins of life on this earth. Many theories or ideas expressed by scientists on the problem, but still not able to give a satisfactory answer.
Actually since the Ancient Greek era of human attempts to give an answer to the problem of the origin of life. However, the answer is usually just a fairy tale or myth only. Here are some theories about the origin of living things.
People of the theory of abiogenesis was Aristotle (384-322 BC). He is a philosopher and prominent ancient Greek science.Abiogenesis theory states that the first living beings inhabiting this earth comes from an inanimate object.
Actually Aristotle knew that if the fish eggs will hatch into fish of the same nature as its parent. Eggs that are a result of marriage of the parent-parent fish. However, Aristotle believes that there are fish from the mudflow.
How does the formation of these creatures? According pengzanut understand abiogenesis, these living things or just happen spontaneously. Therefore, the idea or theory is referred to also understand abiogenesis spontaneae generation.
So, if understanding abiogenesis and spontaneous generation we combine, the mother understood the opinion it is the first living things on earth from inanimate / indefinite life terkjadinya spontaneously, for example:
fish and frogs came from mud.
Worms derived from the land, and
Maggots come from rotting flesh.
Abiogenesis survive long enough to understand, that since the time of Ancient Greece (Hundreds of Years Before AD) until the mid-17th century.
In the mid-17th century, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek discovered a simple microscope that can be used to observe the strange objects found on a very small drop of water soaked straw. By the supporters of abiogenesis, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek observations this seems to strengthen their opinion
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